Anosognosia example

Reflexions - Self-unconsciousnessAnosognosia After TBI: Causes, Symptoms, and Recovery

Anosognosia is a result of changes to the brain. It's not just stubbornness or outright denial, which is a defense mechanism some people use when they receive a difficult diagnosis to cope with. In.. ANOSOGNOSIA: A NEUROLOGICAL CONSTRUCT FOR INSIGHT DEFICITS. The term anosognosia (a=without, noso=disease, gnosia=knowledge) was coined by French neurologist Joseph Babinksi in 1914 to describe the unawareness of deficit or illness, specifically referring to cases of left hemiplegia. Babinski believed the lesions were cortically based and likely located in the right hemisphere

Anosognosia typically refers to the denial of a mental or physical health condition, but people who struggle with addiction often exhibit similar tendencies. For example, people who habitually use (and abuse) drugs or alcohol recognize what they're doing and understand what addiction looks like, but they still feel they don't need help Anosognosia is common in people with serious mental illness. Doctors think about 40% of people with bipolar disorder and 50% of those with schizophrenia have it. Some psychiatrists believe the..

A well-known example of anosognosia is often found in hemispatial neglect patients. This condition is usually caused by a stroke to the right parietal lobe that causes disruption of attention and spatial awareness of the left side of space [4 ]. They often behave as if the left side of the world does not exist For example, if a patient has bipolar disorder along with anosognosia, they will not seek treatment for anosognosia or for bipolar disorder because they do not know that they have either disorder...

Among neurological patients, anosognosia is seen most commonly in Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease and traumatic brain injury. Most patients with Alzheimer's disease, for example, are aware that something is wrong early in the course of their illness but then lose all awareness of their illness as it progresses. Anosognosia Neurologists use the term anosognosia to describe a peculiar syndrome in which a person has a profound lack of awareness of an obvious deficit. For instance, a person who has a stroke on the right side of his brain and is paralyzed of the left side of his body has no awareness of the problem. He might not recognize his left arm as his own frontal lobes to the clinical phenomenon of anosognosia. • Identify and contrast two different models of awareness to support treatment planning. • Describe at least 2 effective strategies to improve insight and awareness in brain injury Anosognosia is common in people with mental illness. Doctors believe about 40% of people with bipolar disorder, and 50% of those suffering from schizophrenia have it. Although some psychiatrists are of the opinion that the numbers are higher than that, they estimate that about 57%-98% of people with schizophrenia suffer from this disorder

Anosognosia: Definition, Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, and Mor

Ashley Huntsberry-Lett Anosognosia is defined as a lack of awareness of an impairment. When the diagnosis is dementia, the lack of awareness becomes very challenging for a family caregiver. How does a person devoted to providing quality care for a loved one succeed if their care recipient cannot acknowledge that they are ill The ways in which those with anosognosia react to mentions of their deficiencies varies as well. For example, a dementia patient may experience occasional difficulty with language skills, like word-finding and vocabulary, but they may rationalize or explain away these situations with a general excuse about age-related forgetfulness or fatigue Anosognosia Anosognosia, also called lack of insight, is a symptom of severe mental illness experienced by some that impairs a person's ability to understand and perceive his or her illness. It is the single largest reason why people with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder refuse medications or do not seek treatment The frequency of anosognosia in AD is reported to range be-tween 20% and 80% (Feher, Mahurin, Inbody, Crook, & Pirozzolo, 1991; Migliorelli, Teson, Sabe, Petracca, et al., 1995; Reed et al., 1993; Sevush & Leve, 1993). This wide discrep-ancy may be due to variability in diagnostic methods, sam-pling bias, heterogeneous sample sizes (Leicht. Anosognosia is not being in denial or being stubborn. It is a condition that can affect the brain on a neurological level. A lack of awareness in one area may not mean a lack of awareness in another. For example, a person may recognize their mobility is declining and agree to use a cane but may lack the awareness to know they can no longer use.

Anosognosia - a term constructed by Babinski (Greek, a, without; noso, disease; gnosis, knowledge) - has come to describe patients' inability to acknowledge a physical deficit or their denial of it. The classic example is anosognosia for a left hemiparesis Anosognosia is a disease that prevents, for example, a person with Alzheimer's disease from recognizing his disease even though the symptoms are undeniable. To distinguish it from disease denial, this disorder is the result of brain injury

Video: Anosognosia in Schizophrenia: Hidden in Plain Sigh

What is Anosognosia? The Denial of Mental Illnes

Nosology is the classification of diseases. Throw the two together, and you get anosognosia, which is a lack of self-awareness of one's own disease/disorder. What lack of insight is. Anosognosia can happen in a neurological context as a result of traumatic brain injury or some other form of physical damage, like a stroke Anosognosia versus Denial Anosognosia differs from denial. Denial is a strategy used to reject something that a person wants to ignore, partially avoid, or reject outright because it is too difficult or causes too much stress. The person may minimize a problem or accept part of the truth, for example, the person may accept the fact of bein

So you may not know that you've lost movement in your arm or leg, for example. This is called anosognosia. If you experience this kind of confusion, it's more likely to be with movement or visual problems, although it can apply to other problems too. People who have neglect are more likely to experience anosognosia example is anosognosia, which involves unawareness or denial of disease or disability, in particular denial of left hemiplegia following right-hemisphere brain damage. Recent authors have explicitly characterised this condition as either delusion (e.g., Aimola Davies, Davies, Ogden, Smithson, & White This is an example of a remarkable well-known phenomenon termed anosognosia, that is the unawareness of the existence of a neurologically based disability (from the Greek words nosos disease and gnosis knowledge; an- / a- is a negative prefix) The inability to recognize one's own illness is the leading reason that people with severe mental illness do not adhere to treatment. In this video, learn ab.. Agnosia causes problems with recognition. For example, a person with agnosia might see a pencil, but not recognize it as one. If you asked them what it was or what it was used for, they may not be able to tell you. Many people often confuse agnosia with aphasia

Medical Definition of anosognosia. : an inability or refusal to recognize a defect or disorder that is clinically evident Mrs. M. 's form of anosognosia is even more extreme: she not only flatly denies she is paralyzed, she refuses to admit that the limp limb on the left has anything at all to do with her. — James Shreeve, Discover, May 1995. The frequency of anosognosia in AD is reported to range be-tween 20% and 80% (Feher, Mahurin, Inbody, Crook, & Pirozzolo, 1991; Migliorelli, Teson, Sabe, Petracca, et al., 1995; Reed et al., 1993; Sevush & Leve, 1993). This wide discrep-ancy may be due to variability in diagnostic methods, sam-pling bias, heterogeneous sample sizes (Leicht. AlzOnline.net is a caregiver support forum for Alzheimer's caregivers. They have an interesting article on their website about anosognosia, which is a lack of self-awareness about one's decline or condition. The best part of the article are examples of how to approach, interact and speak to someone who has anosognia Anosognosia. Anosognosia. Anosognosia, also called lack of insight, is a symptom of severe mental illness experienced by some that impairs a person's ability to understand and perceive his or her illness. It is the single largest reason why people with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder refuse medications or do not seek treatment

Anosognosia: Symptoms, Causes, Treatmen

For example, it commonly affects people with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and dementia, since all of these disorders have the possibility of impacting the brain's cognitive processes, such as memory, sensory perception, and emotions. It goes beyond denial of symptoms; the brain of someone with anosognosia is incapable of recognizing their. 1. Assessment of Anosognosia and Some Examples Anosognosia is usually assessed by means of a structured interview, beginning with general questions about the patient's health and why the patient is in hospital and moving on to more specific questions about the impairment i Anosognosia is a condition where the patient denies to accept the fact that they are mentally ill even after letting the person know about it. There are few symptoms of the illness such as inability to make simple decisions, Poor decision-making ability, unable to make personal hygiene. Etc. Read to know treatment opt Anosognosia is a neurological disorder thought to be caused by abnormalities in the frontal lobes (Impaired Awareness of Illness For example, if a person feels their problem is that they are too paranoid to sleep, focus on addressing that issue with treatment rather than trying to convince them of an illness Doctors think that anosognosia is caused by damage to the frontal lobe of the brain. The frontal lobe is the part of the brain that helps people to process information about themselves. For example, when you change something about your appearance, like your hair, the frontal lobe processes that information and affects how you think about yourself

Anosognosia - an overview ScienceDirect Topic

  1. g of symptom onset is crucial to the ad
  2. Many, for example, may stop taking prescribed medications due to anosognosia. If the anosognosia comes from psychosis or mania , lack of treatment could lead to dangerous behavior
  3. Anosognosia (pronounced an-ah-sog-NO-ziah) Anosognosia means the loss of ability to realize there is anything wrong. That is, they don't know that they don't know. The person with dementia honestly does not realize there is a problem and is unable to understand or perceive the need for help. The lack of awareness can result in safety and.
  4. The senior may be unaware of the memory impairment brought on by dementia, but have full awareness of the physical limitations related to rheumatoid arthritis, for example. Expect fluctuations in the senior's level of anosognosia
  5. http://www.theaudiopedia.com What is ANOSOGNOSIA? What does ANOSOGNOSIA mean? ANOSOGNOSIA meaning - ANOSOGNOSIA pronunciation - ANOSOGNOSIA defini..
Anosognosia - YouTubeAnosognosia: "The map is not the territory

In this study, it was shown that during the observed course of rehabilitation in a subacute patient sample 20 percent of LBD-patients with CTU-apraxia suffered from anosognosia (n = 3) with one patient showing moderate and the other two mild anosognosia. These three patients demonstrated moderate to severe CTU-apraxia ANOSOGNOSIA. n. the failure to acknowledge (or the complete denial of) a disorder or defect - for example, visual, speech, or hearing deficits. The denial may occur as a result of psychological factors or brain injury - particularly to the right hemisphere of the brain. See also Anton's syndrome - anosphresia- anosmia. ANOSOGNOSIA: The person. How to Cope with Your Loved One's Anosognosia. With denial, there are various methods you can employ to help the person cope with their illness. 2 Some of these are very direct (for example, you may have heard of the intervention method when bringing a person face-to-face with their alcohol or drug use). Others are more subtle, seeking.

Anosognosia: When You Don't Realize You Are Ill. During Brain Injury Awareness month this March, we reflect on the devastating and long-term impacts of all kinds of brain injury, particularly dementia. Dementia is a common consequence of brain injury, but it differs from other types of dementia. For example, Alzheimer's disease will get. Objective: Anosognosia, or impaired illness awareness, is a common feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and less so of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Importantly, anosognosia negatively influences clinical outcomes for patients and their caregivers and may predict the conversion from MCI to AD For example, one might experience delusions but have no true understanding that they are delusions. Rather those delusions are what define their reality, so they feel that their grasp on what's real is no different than someone without anosognosia For example, Baier and Karnath found that a number of researchers diagnosed anosognosia when patients scored 1 on the Bisiach's scale, a score assigned when the disorder is reported by the patient only after specific questions. Therefore, the deficit is evident to the subject, but it may be relatively mild and subjectively less prominent to him. Anosognosia of Neglect During Performance of Daily Activities . You will receive an email whenever this article is corrected, updated, or cited in the literature. You can manage this and all other alerts in My Account. The alert will be sent to: Confirm. ×. This feature is available to Subscribers Only.

Anosognosia is commonly seen in people diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease, brain tumors, Huntington's disease, and stroke. Often dismissed as denial, anosognosia actually results from real changes in the brain. It's not stubbornness or even a defense mechanism Anosognosia Questionnaire - Dementia (AQ-D) for screening anosognosia in daily practice. The authors reduce the AQ-D from 30 items to 9, with a large sample of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients (n=352). The Cronbach's alpha was 0.793 and an area under the COR curve was 0.946. Kappa index between new Abridged AQ- anosognosia might be ''artificial'' if the diagnostic criteria are too broad. However, studies reporting a low incidence of anosognosia (e.g., Baier & Karnath, 2005) may be criticized for the opposite reason, as they may have underestimated some forms of unawareness. For example, the frequency of anosognosia for motor impairmen anosognosia was assessed on unselected patients at. the acute stage o f stroke. St one et al. [26] studied 171. consecutive patients at 2-3 days a er stroke and found. an incidence rate of.

Anosognosia: Definition & Treatment Study

Rather than devise complex experiments, he prefers simple intuitive questions and answers. His work on anosognosia is a perfect example. Ramachandran was taken in by a question that haunts Babinski's original work on anosognosia — the question of whether the anosognosic knows (on some level) about the paralysis Anosognosia is often referred to as lack of insight or lack of awareness.. It is not denial or a patient being stubborn - it's a symptom based in the brain. With anosognosia, the affected person may not be able to recognize the signs and symptoms of his or her illness, may not be able to attribute consequences or. In this sense, our patient Janet to ask her husband to remove his (indeed, hers) arm is a clear example of anosognosia. According to Kortte and Hillis (2009), patients with anosognosia for hemiplegia (AHP) have impairments in motor movements that leads to problems with self- care routines For example, there are well-described effects of right-sided intra-carotid amobarbital, which produces anosognosia in a high proportion of cases (Brier, 1995;Lu et al., 1997, Meador et al., 2000, and has long been known to differ from the more emotionally appropriate outcomes that follow from left-sided amobarbital (e.g. Gainotti, 1972, see. PDF | On Apr 5, 2016, Maria Fernanda Barroso de Sousa and others published Clinical factorial distribution of Anosognosia Questionnaire for Dementia (AQ-D) in a sample of patients with Alzheimer's.

Anosognosia: How Conjecture Becomes Medical Fact - Mad

Nonrecognition of a serious medical disability is termed anosognosia.. The Neuropsychiatric Guide to Modern Everyday Psychiatry. Another, shorter article, in the same issue, discusses a condition called anosognosia, where a brain-injured patient may be unaware of, or seem to deny, sometimes quite striking disabilities - for example, being blind or paralysed anosognosia ( countable and uncountable; pl. anosognosias) The inability of a person to recognize his or her own illness or handicap. ( pathology) Failure to be aware of a defect or deficit resulting from disability, due to brain injury (e.g. Anton-Babinski syndrome ) Treatment for Anosognosia Anosognosia isn't easy to treat. If you can persuade someone who has it to keep taking or restart their medication, then it might get better. About one-third of people with schizophrenia who take their medication have improvements in insight into their condition

Anosognosia (Lack of Insight): Causes, Symptoms and Treatmen

Significant mentions of anosognosia:. Help Advanced Feedback Android iPhone/iPad API Blog Privacy Copyright © 2021 Datamus Anosognosia is lack of awareness that a deficit exists or lack of insight into an existing deficit. It often accompanies damage to the right, nondominant parietal lobe (which is usually due to an acute stroke or traumatic brain injury). Patients with multiple impairments can be unaware of one impairment but fully aware of others

Treatment for anosognosia. Treatment for neglect should incorporate treatment for anosognosia. Unfortunately, there isn't much research on anosognosia to guide treatment. Some suggestions are to provide education and facilitate discussion about the problem, and provide verbal and visual feedback to increase awareness of errors The most common result when a schizophrenic person has anosognosia What anosognosia is An example of a symptom of schizophrenia Skills Practiced The study of anosognosia has witnessed an unprecedented increase in interest over the last 20 years. This has resulted in numerous empirical investigations as well as theoretical writings on the nature of human consciousness and how disorders of the brain may influence the person's subjective awareness of a disturbed neurological or neuropsychological function Anosognosia. In the real world, anosognosia is a symptom of illness, particularly certain degenerative memory conditions. In Mythic Europe, it's a useful effect of Mentem magic. A person who has anosognosia does not know that they have lost a skill, and avoid the use of that skill. So, for example, a person who had lost the ability to write.

Anosognosia in eating disorders is an unintentional denial of one's eating symptoms that can be disheartening for loved ones who see the person struggling with an eating disorder. Families need to protect themselves from becoming manipulated by the eating disorder, and one way to do so is to externalize the eating disorder from the person. The senior may not be aware of the memory impairment resulting from the dementia, but still maintain full understanding of his or her physical restrictions related to osteoarthritis, for example. Plan for changes in the senior's extent of anosognosia Managing anosognosia requires some delicate handling. Identifying the best way to respond to a senior who is unfamiliar with the personal difficulties of cognitive functioning is a challenge, especially when either party lacks experience with the condition Most strictly speaking, anosognosia is the individual's ongoing lack of awareness of or insight into, a medically diagnosed condition they have, due to damage to the brain, a variety of anatomical structures are involved, especially the anterior insula, anterior cingulate cortex, medial frontal cortex, and inferior parietal cortex. It is.

Anosognosia The condition in which a person who suffers illness or disability seems unaware of or denies the existence of his or her illness/disability; may include unawareness of quite dramatic impairments, such as blindness or paralysis. And to ignore or deny this quite evident set of facts is a text-book example of Anosognosia. About. One of the things I never found was even a hypothesis of mental illness causes anosognosia. It seems to be a major weakness of the whole idea and asks that people accept a lot on faith that might easily be explained in other ways. I couldnt help but wondering if this isnt another example of backward thinking masquerading as scientific truth anosognosia they do not seem to be sufficient (Frith et al., 2000, p.1782). Another potentially fruitful proposal focuses on issues of motivation and emotion. There are some theoretically-driven grounds for this idea - for example the recent focus on the role of secondary somato-sensory cortex, in the right-hemisphere, i

Anosognosia - Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatmen

Anosognosia in Schizophrenia: Advice for Caregivers. People with anosognosia are less likely to seek and stick with treatment than people who recognize that they are ill. It's actually quite logical (3-13-18) An article entitled The Perplexing Semantics of Anosognosia: Why an obvious phenomena has sparked controversy, written by Dr. Dinah Miller, co-author of COMMITTED: The Battle Over Involuntary Psychiatric Care, drew strong reactions yesterday after I posted it. Among them was this reply from Dr. E. Fuller Torrey, who has been described by The Washington Post as perhaps the most. Anosognosia describes an important clinical symptom and is a term like barking cough or fever and chills characteristic of more than one illness rather than a term implying any. For example, when looking for the telephone number on a credit card statement, search for the letter T. Treat anosognosia using the 'M' (metacognition) of TEACH-M plus other strategies to improve self-awareness. Therapist treatment guide from The Adult Speech Therapy Workbook Anosognosia is a proved neurological deficit that develops secondary to a diffused brain damage or specific lesion. It has striking similarity with impaired insight where both the problems show severe lack of awareness regarding their illness and apathy towards treatments. Neuroanatomic abnormalities are now a proved reality of schizophrenia.

He offered this example of a conversation he had with a stroke patient suffering from anosognosia. Eight days earlier the woman, identified as Mrs. F. D., suffered a stroke and could not use her. anosognosia. Anosognosia (from the Greek nosos meaning ' disease ', a meaning ' without ' and gnosis meaning ' knowledge ') is a medical condition ( Anton's Syndrome for example) that couples both physical handicap with the apparent inability to perceive that same handicap. These handicaps can include paralysis, some other physical disability. Anosognosia was assessed by a global clinical rating, questionnaire discrepancies (patient vs. caregiver) covering different domains, and performance discrepancies (self-assessment vs. performance) based on four neuropsychological tests which were compared with those of a healthy control sample. The results of clinical rating and questionnaire. This representative story is an example of the effects of anosognosia, a symptom of schizophrenia, on a person with mental illness. 5. Anosognosia causes individuals to lack insight into their own condition. 6. Anosognosia leads individuals to feel as though there is nothing wrong with them, and may in The older adult may not be aware of the memory impairment caused by dementia, but still maintain complete understanding of his or her physical limitations related to arthritis, for example. Prepare for fluctuations in the individual's level of anosognosia

Anosognosia - Wikipedi

Example sentences for: anosognosia - Test Your Vocabulary

Most individuals with serious mental illness on assisted outpatient treatment have anosognosia. There are now 20 neuroimaging studies showing subtle differences between the brains of individuals with schizophrenia who have anosognosia and those who do not. In an assessment of Kendra's Law, for example, 81% of individuals surveyed said. Examples Of Unawareness Of Hemiparesis. 132 Words1 Page. Dissociation occurred between unawareness of illness and anosognosia hemiparesis, but no double-dissociation occurred. Measured next was the double-dissociation for neglect and unawareness of hemiparesis. Examples of the double-dissociations were the unawareness of neglect and awareness.

Anosognosia for hemiplegia (AHP) is a phenomenon that was first described in 1914 in an article published by Dr. Joseph Babinski as cited in Langer (2009). He described his observations while attending to two patients after they experienced a stroke. In each of the instances, the patients had a lingering left hemiplegia Anosognosia score = clinician's CBS score - patient's self-assessment score the other also increases - for example height and weight typically represent a positive correlation) or negative (as one variable increases, the other decreases - for example as the cost of gasoline goes higher, the number of miles driven decreases. There. This refractory (delusional) unawareness of motor impairments is termed anosognosia for hemiplegia (AHP, Babinski, 1914 ). The syndrome is usually reported in right hemisphere lesions, although in more recent years the possibility of motor awareness deficits following left hemisphere lesions has been advanced ( Cocchini et al., 2009 ) Right hemisphere damage (RHD; also known as right hemisphere disorder and right hemisphere brain damage) is an acquired brain injury—usually secondary to stroke or TBI—that causes impairments in language and other cognitive domains that affect communication. Syntax, grammar, phonological processing, and word retrieval typically.

Anosognosia is a condition in which the patient is suffering some severe neurological impairment but does not know it. [Anosognosia, Healthline.com, February 27, 2019] The impairment is strictly neurological, in the higher processing regions of the brain. You might, for example, be suffering from paralysis of a limb, yet be unaware of it Cova et al. (2017), for example, found no relationship between ACD and progression to AD dementia after 28 months, but the authors commented on their result in light of a possible inadequacy of the method to measure anosognosia (a single question from the Geriatric Depression Scale being too simple a way to measure a complex symptom such as. Examples of anosognosia. in a sentence Add a sentence Cancel. Thanks for contributing. anosognosia. should be in sentence. You are not logged in.. Please Log in or Register or post as a guest. Submit. Comments about anosognosia. Post {{comment[1]}}. This is an example of what symptom of schizophrenia? a. delusions of reference b. loos association c. anosognosia d. auditory hallucinations. D. to promote family interaction and increase understanding of the illness. 10. Which of the following is the primary focus of family therapy for clients with schizophrenia and their families

Anosognosia Tips: How to Handle Varying Levels of

The person does, for example, assume that he/she doesn't have motor limitations and risks of walking, thereby suffering from constant accidents. Anosognosia is precisely this difficulty in becoming aware of a disease. The patients therefore doesn't treat the disease and it progressively get worse The syndrome of hemispatial neglect is characterised by reduced awareness of stimuli on one side of space, even though there may be no sensory loss. Although it is extremely common, it has proven to be a challenging condition to understand, and to treat. New insights from detailed behavioural and anatomical studies in patients, as well as functional imaging in healthy individuals, have begun.

(PDF) Mirror writing resulting from an egocentricThe peculiar perception of the problem of perceptionInsight - Psychiatry
  • Surrey Central mall hours.
  • Transpeak Bus tracker.
  • 2013 Jaguar XJ common problems.
  • Hand drawn flowers background.
  • Achilles tendon strap.
  • Easy like sunday morning The Hindu.
  • Canon SX60 HS price in sri lanka.
  • Peter Fragiskatos.
  • Is y a vowel oxford.
  • HGTV Smart Home 2020 for sale.
  • Mole check Leicester.
  • Best front closure bras for large breasts.
  • Eosinophilic Esophagitis guidelines UK.
  • Reef Kitchens Chicago.
  • How do i change the color of my screen back to normal Android.
  • ELISA full form class 12.
  • Moto c disassembly.
  • Masala Omelette Ranveer Brar.
  • Online gift delivery in Jhansi.
  • Desh Bhakti Poems in Hindi by Harivansh Rai Bachchan.
  • Placenta previa affecting the fetus ICD 10.
  • Guess Logos Level 77.
  • Dinner plate Hibiscus seeds.
  • Moto E5 Play release date.
  • Lion of Judah on the throne lyrics.
  • Shiv Parivar Photo Frame online.
  • Ano ang tradisyon ng mga ivatan.
  • Gigi's hoboken menu.
  • Wap lyrics az.
  • Speech therapy home program for toddlers.
  • Xkcd solipsism.
  • Fall River Mills, CA rentals.
  • BlackBerry Q10 Mobile.
  • Sleep and dementia risk.
  • Things to do in atlantic beach, nc when it rains.
  • Took over synonym.
  • Pub City Centre.
  • Where are cookies stored in Windows 10 Chrome.
  • YSA Makino 2021.
  • When do pubs reopen UK.
  • Tiktok hot basketball player.