Forensic science in the 1900s

Forensic Science - bei Amazon

History of Forensic Science 1900-2000 timeline Timetoast

Early 1900s - Forensic Science - Weebl

  1. In the early 1900s, Karl Landsteiner worked at the Institute of Pathological Anatomy in Vienna, Austria, where he discovered that when he combined blood serum from different individuals, a pattern of antibody-antigen reactions occurred
  2. By the early 1900s, the field of forensic investigation achieved major developments, due to the design and use of modern forensic methods and discoveries such as Benzidine, a chemical compound used to develop a universal, presumptive test for blood
  3. al investigations in some manner or another been around since before the Roman Empire, the idea of forensic science as a discipline and a career is barely 100 years old. It has only been within the last century that law enforcement agencies and the court systems have come to rely so heavily on the.
  4. Enhancement of Forensics during the 1800- 1900s In history this time period is considered as the growth and spread of Forensic Science. In the early 1800s where ideas were still at large and developing an English Naturalist named Thomas Bewick used his own fingerprints to identify the books he published
  5. al and civil laws to solve investigations. Since the early 1800s, forensic science has played a critical role in solving many high-profile crimes and cases long forgotten about
  6. A quick history of forensic science. In 1911, prosecutors for the state of Illinois won a murder conviction against Thomas Jennings. They did so by convincing a jury that Jennings's fingerprint.

The 1900s. Early forensic specialists were self-taught. There were no special schools, university courses or formal training. The establishment of a forensic science curricula in 1902 by Swiss Professor R. A. Reiss at the University of Lausanne, Switzerland, was one of the first steps towards establishing forensic science as an academic discipline Overview. Medicine was the first science-based profession to be used for forensic purposes, and forensic medicine can be considered to be the mother of forensic science. In the sixth century, the Emperor Justinian recognized the special position of the expert witness when he declared that physicians were not ordinary witnesses but rather. 1900s - The Eugenics Movement . In the history of DNA, the Eugenics movement is a notably dark chapter, which highlights the lack of understanding regarding the new discovery at the time. The term 'eugenics' was first used around 1883 to refer to the science of heredity and good breeding With the 21st century looming on the horizon, I thought this would be a good time to review just how far we have come in terms of forensic science and crime scene investigation during the 1900s, and to look where we are headed in the future. Great advances in police science have occurred from 1900-1999

The 8 Most Famous Forensic Scientists & Their List of

THE EVOLUTION OF FORENSIC SCIENCE: PROGRESS AMID THE PITFALLS∗ Joseph L. Peterson∗∗ Anna S. Leggett∗∗∗ I. INTRODUCTION There have been several significant social, legal, and scien-tific changes in the criminal justice system and the forensic sci-ences since the 1970s that have dramatically altered the contours of the law-science. 1900 - different human blood types are discovered by Karl Landsteiner. 1905 - President Theodore Roosevelt establishes the FBI, the Federal Bureau of Investigation. 1910 - the first forensic.

As a recognized science, fingerprinting made significant strides in the 1800s, becoming one of the first forensic sciences by the early 1900s. Today it continues to be a valuable tool for identifying people of interest by examining evidence left behind at a crime scene, and fingerprint evidence is widely accepted in court In the early 1900s, Bayer began selling _____ as a sedative for coughs. skin contact. Forensic Science Mid-term. 52 terms. row505. Forensics Midterm. 58 terms. audreyyoung. Chapter 5 forensic science. 48 terms. Miguel-lopezCRSJ2018. Chapter 5 forensic science review questions

During the late 1800s and early 1900s, forensic science expanded to include technologies like body temperature to determine time of death and the systematic use of fingerprinting for identification. The portable polygraph machine appeared in 1921 followed by tests to detect gunshot residue in 1933 Forensic Science Service,in which all 500 local men not and the degree of certainty can be correspondingly high. However, it was not always this straightforward. Early markers. The evolution of forensic genetics has been driven by the analysis of human genetic variation, beginning more than a century ago with Kar The History Of Forensic Science. Home. 1900s. 1910s. 1920s. 1930s. 1940s. 1950s. 1960s. 1970s. 1980s. 1990s. 2000s. change. More. Forensic science in the 1910s. victor balthazard was A Professor of Forensic Medicine at Sorbonne. Balthazard is famous for discovering that the tools used to make gun barrels never leave the same markings

History of Forensic Science: the Early Years- 1800,1900s, 21st Century. Edit The Early Years. 700s- Chinese used fingerprints for identification purpose. They used palm and thumb prints in documents and clay sculptures. 1248- Book named Hsi DuanYu (the Washing Away of Wrongs) was published. It described difference between drowning and. Physicians and surgeons first gained practical knowledge of death and decomposition through handling and dissecting bodies obtained for anatomical study. Over the course of the 19th and 20th centuries, the study of the decomposed body and body parts—the effects of time, environment, and manner of death—became a vital part of forensic science In the late 19th and early 20th century, forensic science was increasingly applied to the body of the suspect. The populations of cities and nations were growing rapidly, and so did national and colonial administrations, policing, and penal systems, which adopted (and grew through the use of) forensic methods of identification and detection Forensic science is shedding new light on one of the most notorious murder cases in British history. In 1910 American born Dr Hawley Harvey Crippen was found guilty and subsequently hanged for the murder of his wife Cora. Crippen is said to have poisoned Cora, dismembered her body and then buried her remains in the cellar of their London home

Forensic Science 1850-1900 timeline Timetoast timeline

police - police - Crime-scene investigation and forensic sciences: The first police crime laboratory was established in 1910 in Lyon, France, by Edmond Locard. According to Locard's exchange principle, it is impossible for criminals to escape a crime scene without leaving behind trace evidence that can be used to identify them. That principle gave rise to the forensic sciences, which. Forensic science involves the collection, preservation, and analysis of evidence suitable for prosecuting an offender in the court of law. The application of forensic science in the criminal justice system therefore, gives a clear picture. The legal system widely recognizes the role of forensic evidence in the trial of criminal offenders Basic principles of forensic science By Dave Barclay. Prof. Edmund Locard wrote in various papers and books published around the time of the first world war that every contact leaves a trace. This is also called Locard's exchange principle, and refers to the transfer of trace evidence like fibres, soil, dust and hair, from one person or.

Forensic Science During the early 20th Century History

Incognito Forensic Foundation (IFF Lab) - a premier private forensic science laboratory headquartered in Chennai and having a presence all over India, is a valuable addition to the forensic domain in India. With crime rates ascending every year, the dearth of sufficient forensic labs leads to a delay in investigations and the relay of justice COVID-19 Resources. Reliable information about the coronavirus (COVID-19) is available from the World Health Organization (current situation, international travel).Numerous and frequently-updated resource results are available from this WorldCat.org search.OCLC's WebJunction has pulled together information and resources to assist library staff as they consider how to handle coronavirus. Avoiding the typical early roadblocks faced by women in male-dominated science, McGill had little trouble stepping into criminology in the early 1900s. The relatively new field of forensic. Silent Killers: Poisons and the Development of Forensic Toxicology. Forensic Toxicology is the study of poisons, chemicals, and toxins for the purpose of investigation. Most often, we think of it as being used in criminal investigations ¬- popular television shows like CSI or Bones have brought forensic practices in to our living rooms, and even glamorized this line of work Evolution and development of forensic science dates as far back as 250 C.E. when Greek physician Erasistratus employed the first lie-detector test by studying the rhythm of someone's pulse. In the early 1900s, Dr. Edmond Locard was one of the first to propose the concept that every contact leaves a trace

II. Primary Areas of Forensic Science. Many of the foundations of forensic science are rooted in keen criminal investigative principles adjoined with analysis using the scientific method. The work of Edmond Locard is a case in point. In the early 1900s, Locard developed a simple investigative principle that has stood the test of time and is. Since the introduction of modern sciences into law enforcement in the late 1920s with what is called today crime labs, a tremendous revolution in the application of technology to fight and prevent crime has occurred. Much like the advent of advanced radio and GPS technology in patrol cars, forensic science has become an essential tool and aids in solving investigations in ways. Early History of Forensic Entomology, 1300-1900. Ants. Bees, & Wasps. Debbie Hadley is a science educator with 25 years of experience who has written on science topics for over a decade. In recent decades, the use of entomology as a tool in forensic investigations has become fairly routine. The field of forensic entomology has a much longer. Forensic Science. 1900: Daniel T. Ames published the first book on questioned documents----- American physician wrote article in Buffalo Medical Journal re barrel marks on bullets----- Englishman Sir Richard Henry devised a system of classifying fingerprints

Forensic science was used as far back as the 700s! The Chinese actually used fingerprints to establish identity of documents and clay sculpture. The major advances were made later in the 1800s and 1900s, and it is still advancing today. Some of the advances in the 1800s include The nascent development of institutional forensic science as we know it today, in the late nineteenth century, was a crucial component in the larger process of the professionalization of policing. In the twentieth century, forensic science transitioned from a location outside of police agencies, primarily in universities, and an auxiliary role. In the aftermath of successful attacks on Belgium's forensic labs, European officials are now concerned about the security of their nuclear sites as well. 3 Hair Follicle Fail. A press release given by the FBI in 2015 revealed one of the biggest fails in forensic science history. According to an examiner's study, at least 90 percent of.

Forensic science, also known as criminalistics, is the application of science to criminal and civil laws, mainly—on the criminal side—during criminal investigation, as governed by the legal standards of admissible evidence and criminal procedure.. Forensic scientists collect, preserve, and analyze scientific evidence during the course of an investigation Introduction. Forensic entomology is the study of the application of insects and other arthropods in criminal investigation.[] Insects or arthropods are found in a decomposing vertebrate corpse or carrion.[] These insect colonizers can be used to estimate the time of death i.e., time interval between death and corpse discovery, also called postmortem index (PMI), movement of the corpse, manner. FORENSIC DOCUMENT EXAMINATION A Brief History Third Century The time of Titus and Anthony Jurists established protocols for the determination of Third Century forgery and the manner in which forgeries were to be detected.1 1910 1924 1900 & 1903 Third Century 1900 United States 1887 Sixth Centery 1923 1929 193

The History of Forensic Science and it's evolution - IFF La

  1. Dr Edmond Locard established that these material exchanges were key to analysing a scene of crime. This became known as Lockard's Exchange Principle, and it was the foundation of forensic science in the early 1900s till nowadays. A practice of Locard's Principe is Fiber Analysis
  2. Probability and Statistics for Forensic Science • The forensic science problem in statistical terms . o. Evidence types (DNA, latent prints, firearms, ) o. A range of different types of variables . o. Critical issues in design of data collection and availability of population databases • Use of basic statistical tools .
  3. e famous cases from the past. The Crippen case is one example. In the early 1900s in England, Dr. Hawley Harvey Crippen was found guilty of murdering his wife, Cora. Crippen was executed by hanging for the crime
  4. Balthazard, Victor. 1/1/1872 - 1950 FRENCH PROFESSOR IN FORENSIC MEDICINE. In the early 1900s, Victor Balthazard worked as a professor in forensic medicine at the Sorbonne University in Paris, France.Together with the French physicist Pierre Curie (1859 - 1906) and his Sorbonne colleague Charles Bouchard (1831 - 1915), they collaborated on the physiological action of radium (radon.
  5. The advent of fingerprinting in the 1900s and of crime laboratories in the 1920s greatly augmented the police capacity to solve crimes. The introduction of the two-way radio and the widespread use of the automobile in the 1930s multiplied police productivity in responding to incidents. The National Center for Forensic Science is located at.

In the book Forensic Science Reform Ford and Krane wrote on p. 234, Proponents of probabilistic genotyping software packages should scrupulously avoid succumbing to market pressures to have. The Forensic Botanist. The aim of forensic science is to help solve crimes through analytical methods, be it performing autopsies, identifying DNA, or even providing evidence at a molecular level. There is a wide spectrum of forensic sciences to cover every possible aspect that may be related to a crime 1, 2: Pathology. Ballistics. DNA analysis

In this document, forensic document examiner, Mark Songer, provides an introduction to the science of forensic handwriting analysis. He discusses the steps that a forensic document examiner follows, including analysis, comparison, and evaluation. He also provides a brief example, comparing two handwriting samples, drawing attention to some of. bio lab concepts quiz 1. 43 terms. michc333. Forensic science I midterm. 345 terms. michc333. OTHER QUIZLET SETS. Presumptions and Permissive Inferences. 15 terms

Forensic Science Hair & Fibres. In any struggle between victim and attacker hairs and fibres from one are inevitably transferred to the other. The importance of hair in criminal investigation was realised at an early stage in the development of forensic science, and one of the first scientific papers on the subject was published in France in 1857 ABO Blood Type Identification and Forensic Science (1900-1960) El Profesor. 11 November 2020 (0) By: Corey Harbison. The use of blood in forensic analysis is a method for identifying individuals suspected of committing some kinds of crimes. Paul Uhlenhuth and Karl Landsteiner, two scientists working separately in Germany in the early twentieth. In Scotland, forensic medicine and science remained associated with university departments, but the professors who served as expert witnesses were among the medical detectives— a select group of forensic pathologists in the period from about 1910 to 1960 who undertook all aspects of forensic practice including toxicology

Forensics Study and Analysis: History of Hair and Fibercold cases , true crime, unsolved, missing and

Forensic Science in the 19th and 20th Centuries Research

  1. PPT - History of Forensic Science PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 50ac2-ZDc1Z. The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content. Get the plugin now. Actions. Remove this presentation Flag as Inappropriate I Don't Like This I like this Remember as a Favorite. Download Share Share
  2. Forensic science is a discipline that applies scientific analysis to the justice system, often to help prove the events of a crime. Forensic scientists analyze and interpret evidence found at the crime scene. That evidence can include blood, saliva, fibers, tire tracks, drugs, alcohol, paint chips and firearm residue. Up Next
  3. Forensic science is one aspect of law enforcement where crime-solving, technology and science meet in support of the Theory of Transfer (When two objects meet, some evidence of that meeting can be found later and verified). In the 1800s and 1900s, law enforcement's forensic science had a substantial.

Forensic science is the combination of two different Latin words: forensis and science. The former, forensic, relates to a discussion or examination performed in public. Because trials in the ancient world were typically held in public, it carries a strong judicial connotation. The second, of course, is science, which is derived from the Greek. In the late 1970s, forensic dentistry became popular in the US after it helped convict Ted Bundy. In Britain, however, it was readily used decades earlier, having been pioneered by pathologist Keith Simpson. One of the first recorded instances of forensic dentistry evidence in an English court came in 1948 during the trial of Robert Gorringe Forensic science is one of the fastest-growing occupational fields, as developments in technology and criminology have made criminal investigations highly technical and scientific. The era of the gut feeling is long over - crimes are solved with science today, and thanks to shows like CSI, true-crime documentaries, and investigation podcasts, everyone wants to be a forensic scientist

What field of forensic science would this person be in? Answers: Forensic psychology. Forensic pathology. Forensic accounting. 20th century (1900s) 21st century (2000s) Question 30 30 Judge Joseph R. Slights, III et al., Forensic Science(s) in the Courtroom, 20 WIDENER L. REV. 119 (2014). Citation to related work Widener University School of La Web of Science. Data Citation Index. Provides bibliographic references to research data in the areas of Science (1900-present) and Social Science & Humanities (1900-present). Includes Basic Search (by topic, title, author, DOI, document type, etc.), Cited Reference Search, and Advanced Search. Document type includes Repository, Data study, and.

FDLE employs more than 1,900 members statewide - either at headquarters or in one of seven regional operations centers (ROCs). Services are delivered by five key areas: Executive Direction and Business Support; Investigations and Forensic Science, Florida Capitol Police, Criminal Justice Information Services; and Criminal Justice Professionalism the forensic science society presents a bibliography on ethyl alcohol for forensic science, medicine, and law, with a total of 1,633 journal citations. Abstract THE TWO MAIN SOURCES OF REFERENCE WERE ENGLAND'S CENTRAL RESEARCH ESTABLISHMENT'S COLLECTION OF FORENSIC SCIENCE LITERATURE AND THE U.S. NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE (MEDLINE. Forensic Science 1900s Music Videos. Converging Technologies For Human Progress: Science and technology, the basis for all breakthrough innovations, have accelerated to a rapid pace over the past 25 years on a scale no civilization has ever experienced in the history of the world There is a long history of using forensic science in police work. The first recorded autopsy was of Julius Caesar in 44 B.C. (Edson, 2011). He was killed by the second stab wound (Edson, 2011). Before the invention of computers and modern in pioneering forensic work in the early 1900s (Fox, 2015)

In 1900 Karl Landsteiner described the ABO blood grouping system and observed that individuals could be placed into different groups based on their blood type. This was the first step in the development of forensic haemogenetics. In 1915 Leone Lattes published a book describing the use of ABO typing to resolve a paternity case and by 1931 the absorption-inhibition ABO typing technique that. Forensic hair analysis has played a key role in courts since the beginning of the 1900s. The academic and scientific world had to see hair analysis as an established science. The earliest examination of hairs in a criminal investigation occurred, in the murder of Duchesse de Praslin in 1847 Forensic science is the scientific means used to study physical crime scene evidence. This science has helped us catch bad guys such as Ted Bundy and John Wayne Gacy. But it didn't helps us catc Forensic science entails the application of scientific principles to analyse evidence at a crime scene in order to reconstruct and describe past events in a legal setting. It has been deeply influenced by Locard's exchange principle that states that the perpetrator of a crime will bring something into the crime scene and leave with something.

Timeline of Forensic Toxicology 1900's - Caroline Grills In 1953, Caroline Grills, a 63-year-old great-grandmother, was charged with having poisoned four distant relatives, using what was then the virtually untraceable thallium. A suspicious son-in-law of one of her intende As with any evolving science, the exact origins of forensic firearms identification are shrouded in obscurity.. Exactly when it was first noted that fired bullets from a given weapon possessed a certain number of equally spaced impressed grooves, all inclined in the same direction and at the same angle, and which were the same on every other bullet fired through that weapon, will probably. 1892 - Sir Francis Galton, a British Anthropologist and cousin to Charles Darwin, publishes the first book on fingerprints. In his book, Galton identifies the individuality and uniqueness of fingerprints. The unique characteristics of fingerprints, as identified by Galton, will officially become known as minutiae, however they are sometimes still referred to as Galton' - Forensic hair analysis has played a major role in courts since it the beginning of the 1900s. The academic and scientific world had to see hair analysis as an established science. Hair evidence is iniatated into court Moved Permanently. The document has moved here

The first seeds of forensic psychology were planted in 1879, when Wilhelm Wundt, often called the father of psychology, founded his first lab in Germany. 1  Since Wundt, the field of forensic psychology has blossomed, with contributions by lots of other experts. James McKeen Cattell, for example, conducted some of the earliest research on. The ancient Babylonians pressed the tips of their fingertips into clay to record business transactions. The Chinese used ink-on-paper finger impressions for business and to help identify their children. However, fingerprints weren't used as a method for identifying criminals until the 19th century. In 1858, an Englishman named Sir William. DNA fingerprinting, one of the great discoveries of the late 20th century, has revolutionized forensic investigations. This review briefly recapitulates 30 years of progress in forensic DNA analysis which helps to convict criminals, exonerate the wrongly accused, and identify victims of crime, disasters, and war. Current standard methods based on short tandem repeats (STRs) as well as lineage. The column-based technique HPLC is widely used in forensic science. In this method, the mobile phase is forced through the column at high pressure rather than dripped through it, as it is in other. 1900s 1900 - E.R Contrary to assertions by some forensic science critics that fingerprint experts claim they never make erroneous identifications, the Latent Print Certification program active since 1977 has specifically recognized such mistakes sometimes occur and must be addressed

Fingerprints: A new way to identify criminals (1891

How exactly has forensic science changed over time? Here is a run down of some of the advances made in forensic technology along with other important milestones in forensics history that date all the way back from the 1200's to today, with a variety of forensic applications Forensic science in its broadest definition is the application of science to law. As our society has grown more complex, it has become more depen- 1900s, Bertillon's early efforts have earned him the distinction of being known as the father of criminal identification. Francis Galton (1822-1911) Therefore, forensic science is a dialogue about, or debate of, scientific theories in a judicial setting. Although it is uncertain exactly where the concept of forensic science originated, most historical experts agree it was very likely in China around the 6th century or earlier They also contributed immensely to forensic toxicology in America and the rest of the world. Forensic toxicology has a rich and fascinating history. For hundreds of years, this interesting area of science has been of great benefit to countless criminal investigations, cases and trials. It brings to light both justice and the truth The export option will allow you to export the current search results of the entered query to a file. Different formats are available for download

Forensic Science: Tv Shows That Deal College With Forensic

Forensic science Timeline - Softschools

It integrates the birth of forensic science with the rise of big business, national, state and local politics, and the development of government safety regulations The early 1900s were a time. The Bachelor of Forensic Science (BFSc) program utilizes an interdisciplinary approach by combining a strong foundation in the areas of Criminal Justice, Natural and Social Sciences, with extensive laboratory and field experiences that will contribute to the graduates' future workplaces in the CALABARZON, NCR areas, different parts of the Philippines, and even overseas Bill Kurtis hosts this documentary series that profiles criminal cases involving high profile murders, serial killers, and organized crime. Each episode culminating with the justice dispensed by the American legal system in each case. Stars: Bill Kurtis, Sonny Vellozzi, Linda Fairstein, F. Lee Bailey. Votes: 671 A fun and informative PowerPoint designed to allow your students to be introduced to the important players in the history of forensics. This lecture guide touches on the major people from the 1800s and 1900s, as well as provides an intro into some of the earliest known forensic science uses. The wo In addition to advancing the science of forensic entomology, Mégnin's work greatly popularized the subject. His experiments were performed from May 1899 to September 1900, using aborted fetuses and cat, fox, rat, mole, and calf cadavers that he put on the windowsill of the institute as well as in a nearby vegetable garden


Forensic Science in the Period 1950-2000 History of

Forensic Serology, Immunology, and Biochemistry Unit IX: Banslations of Selected Contributions to the Original Literature of Medicolegal Examinations of Blood and Body Fluids compiled and edited b~ R.E. Gaensslen, Ph.D. Professor of Forensic Science University of New Haven West Haven, Connecticut with aforeword by Frank R. Camp, Jr Forensic science involves analyzing evidence, everything from drugs to human remains. The discipline emerged in the U.S. in the early 1900s, when microscopes were used to examine trace evidence.

Video: Before DNA: 20th-century forensics - Phys

Founder of Modern Forensics: Bernard Spilsbury - StMU

English literature 1830-1900; I want this title to be available as an eBook. Detective Fiction and the Rise of Forensic Science. $41.95 (C) Part of Cambridge Studies in Nineteenth-Century Literature and Culture. Author: Ronald R. Thomas, Trinity College, Connecticut; Date Published: January 2004 La Salle University | Philadelphia, Pa. Overview. The goal of this program is to prepare students to enter the field of economic crime in careers such as internal and external fraud auditors, criminal and economic crime investigators, litigation support analysts and anti-money laundering investigators Science Jeff Sessions Doesn't Understand the Necessity of Science His decision to kill the National Commission on Forensic Science betrays a lack of understanding about how to assess good evidence

ABO Blood Type Identification and Forensic Science (1900

Forensic science is the application of scientific methods and techniques to investigations by law enforcement agencies or courts of law. It has become more popular in the public mind because of intense coverage of legal cases in the media and a number of television programs regarding crime scene investigation Forensic Science: Real Practice vs. Television Drama. A Live Chat With Professor Elizabeth A. Murray, Forensic Anthropologist. January 3, 2017. On November 5, 2015, Professor Elizabeth Murray sat down for a live Q&A session with her fans from across the globe. The chat is over, but the transcript is posted below for you to enjoy

1. History of Forensic Science: the Early Years- 1800,1900s, 21st Century. History of Forensic Science: Eminent Scientists - Alphonse Bertillon, Sir Francis Galton, Hans Gross. 2. History of Forensic Science: Eminent Scientists - Mathieu Orfil, Albert Osborn, Karl Landsteiner, Edmond Locard, Calvin Goddard Forensic Science Databases Search this Guide Search. Forensic Science. Books & Encyclopedias; (1900+) - Derwent Innovations Index - Patents Database (1963+) It is designed to assist the forensic explosives analyst in characterizing, classifying and comparing smokeless coffee powder samples based on their physical and chemical. Dr. Edmond Locard and Trace Evidence Analysis in Criminalistics in Early 1900s: How Forensic Science Revolves Around Trace Evidence by Eric Stauffer Validation of Forensic Characterization and Chemical Identification of Dyes Extracted from Millimeter -length Fibers. Vladimir Obruchev, geologist, paleontologist, geographer and explorer of Siberia and Central Asia, author of the comprehensive Geology of Siberia and two popular science fiction novels, Plutonia and Sannikov Land; Peter Simon Pallas, polymath naturalist, geographer, ethnographer, philologist, explorer of European Russia and Siberia, discoverer of the first pallasite meteorite (Krasnojarsk) and.