Polio Eradication date

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Richard Rhodes, A Hole in the World On Saturday, June 17, 1916, an official announcement of the existence of an epidemic polio infection was made in Brooklyn, New York. That year, there were over 27,000 cases and more than 6,000 deaths due to polio in the United States, with over 2,000 deaths in New York City alone In 1988, the World Health Assembly - the governing body of the World Health Organization (WHO) - launched the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) which was tasked with eradicating the disease globally by the year 2000. 33 The eradication of the disease in just 12 years was an ambitious plan, polio was still endemic in 125 countries of the world in 1988 Poliomyelitis officially eradicated in Europe (2002) The last reported case of polio on the European continent was a young Turkish boy in November 1998. In the summer of 2002, the World Health Organization declared that polio had also been eliminated in Europe. Type 2 polio vaccine called into question (2016 Polio was not an unknown disease: its reputation for cruelty was well earned. In the 1916 outbreak, there were 27,000 cases and more than 6,000 deaths due to polio in the United States, 2,000 of which were in New York City. After the war, people had living memories of this horror. People were also used to adjusting their behavior

It's moving backward. When the Global Polio Eradication Initiative began in 1988, roughly 350,000 kids a year were paralyzed by the virus. By 2016 that number had been driven down to 42 cases of.. History of Polio. It is likely that polio has plagued humans for thousands of years. An Egyptian carving from around 1400 BCE depicts a young man with a leg deformity similar to one caused by polio. Polio circulated in human populations at low levels and appeared to be a relatively uncommon disease for most of the 1800s The Gates Foundation announces its first major grant to polio eradication - a $100 million challenge to Rotary, promising to match funds raised by Rotarians. 2009 Bill Gates pledges an additional $255 million at Rotary's International Assembly, and Rotary increases its fundraising goal to $200 million

Since the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) was launched in 1988, the number of polio cases worldwide has declined approximately 99.99%; only two countries (Afghanistan and Pakistan) have never interrupted wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission (1) health outcomes and progress toward polio eradication Communications strategy aligned across (e.g., communication for development, crisis communications, digital communications, external communications, and community engagement innovations Delayed WPV1 interruption, expanding vaccine-derived polio virus outbreaks, and a complex donor landscape wil Since 1996, polio eradication efforts have prevented up to 1.8 million children from crippling life-long paralysis and saved approximately 180,000 lives. This doesn't mean no child will develop.. Since the effort to eradicate polio began in 1988, the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) has pushed polio to near annihilation, reducing cases by 99.99%. Yet the GPEI has been perched, exhaustingly and expensively, at the cusp of success for years, writes Fortner

Mark Pallansch and Dr. Hardeep Sandhu write that six years after the original 2000 target date for the global eradication of polio, public health workers are encountering several stumbling blocks In 1961, Albert Sabin (R) pioneered the more easily administered oral polio vaccine (OPV). Despite the availability of vaccines polio remained a threat, with 707 acute cases and 79 deaths in the. Today, the Africa Regional Certification Commission certified the WHO African Region as wild polio-free after four years without a case. With this historic milestone, five of the six WHO regions - representing over 90% of the world's population - are now free of the wild poliovirus, moving the world closer to achieving global polio eradication

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Polio eradication - Wikipedi

  1. Rotary has been working to eradicate polio for more than 35 years. Our goal of ridding the world of this disease is closer than ever. As a founding partner of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, we've reduced polio cases by 99.9 percent since our first project to vaccinate children in the Philippines in 1979
  2. Polio Eradication -Global update Annual Vaccine Industry Consultation Copenhagen, 19 September 2019 Michel Zaffran, Director, Polio Eradication 1. 1Excludes viruses detected from environmental surveillance ; 2Onset of paralysis: 11 Mar 2018 -10 Sep 2019 Created Date: 9/19/2019 9:24:45 AM.
  3. This time two years ago, it must have felt as though the long international campaign to eradicate polio—launched in 1988 and decades past its hoped-for end date—was at last nearing its goal.
  4. The journal supplement, Lessons Learned from Global Polio Eradication - Part 1, is the first collection of articles describing lessons from the polio eradication experience to date under the STRIPE project. Lessons Learned from Global Polio Eradication - Part 1 was published in BMC Public Health on August 12, 2020
  5. ating mass vaccination and other eradication strategies—we can expect up to 200,000 cases annually. We, members of the scientific community, declare our conviction that the eradication of polio is an urgent and entirely achievable global health priority

INTRODUCTION. Given the availability of an inexpensive oral polio vaccine (OPV) and the success of the Pan American Health Organization polio eradication program in the Americas, the World Health Assembly resolved in 1988 to eradicate polio globally by the year 2000 [].This goal proved more challenging than originally foreseen, and important obstacles remain; these obstacles include poor. Since the effort to eradicate polio began in 1988, the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) has pushed polio to near annihilation, reducing cases by 99.99%. Yet the GPEI has been perched,.. Efforts to eradicate polio, as is the case with every health programme, have suffered since the emergence of COVID-19. Vaccination campaigns were rightly paused for four months last year to.

Africa declared free from wild polio — but vaccine-derived strains remain. No new cases of wild poliovirus have been recorded on the continent since 2016, but other types of the virus persist. A. Eradication of poliomyelitis remains a public health priority due to the paralytic effects of the virus on children and impact on global health system. However, existing gaps in surveillance can hinder eradication The success of Nigeria's federal and state governments, Global Polio Eradication Initiative partners, and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation is all the more impressive given the climate of disinformation, intimidation, and violence that peaked with the 2013 murder of 13 vaccinators by insurgents in Kano and Borno states Efforts to fully eradicate polio by a target date of 2018 are challenged by a variety of factors, including regional instability. Congress supports polio eradication efforts through USAID and CDC global health appropriations and through the World Health Organization (WHO). Background Polio is an infectious disease that affects the nervou

The news comes today—World Polio Day—and means two of the three wild poliovirus strains are now eradicated. The last case of WPV3 was detected in northern Nigeria in 2012. In 2015, wild poliovirus type 2 was declared eradicated from the world The achievement of polio eradication will be a milestone for global health eradication—relying only on routine immunization to vaccinate against polio and eliminating mass vaccination and other eradication strategies—we can expect up to 200,000 cases annually. We, members of the scientific community, declare our conviction that the eradication of polio is an urgent and entirely achievable global health priority The original target date for eradication by 2000 has been extended again and again—to 2005, 2008, 2010, and so on until the current target of 2021. The success of polio eradication in other parts of the world, such as India , suggests that the work in Pakistan would have been finished by now if basic water, sanitation, and appropriate.

Polio eradication, cessation of vaccination and re

GPEI - Global Polio Eradication Initiativ

The eradication of smallpox raised hopes that the same could be accomplished for other diseases, with many named as possibilities: polio, mumps, and dracunculiasis (Guinea worm disease), among others. Malaria has also been considered, and its incidence has been reduced drastically in many countries The U.S. government (U.S.) has been engaged in efforts to address polio for decades, as a partner in and the second largest donor to the Global Polio Eradication Initiative and as a supporter of. The hoped-for date has been moved again, to the end of 2012 this time. Polio eradication is completely dependent on the granular: drawing maps of every neighborhood, accurately recording every. For a few though, polio affected the brain and spinal cord, which could lead meningitis and, for one out of 200, paralysis. For two to 10 of those suffering paralysis, the end result was death The main reason is the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI). When it began in 1988, there were an estimated 350,000 persons paralyzed by polio in that year alone

adopted the goal of global polio eradication. Although the initial target date of 2000 was not met, substan- tial progress has been made. In 1988, there were esti- mated to be 350,000 reported cases of polio in the world; in 2001, just 483 cases were reported. Despite challenges caused by vaccine rumors an The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) partners engaged modelers during the past nearly 20 years to support strategy and policy discussions and decisions, and to provide estimates of the risks, costs, and benefits of different options for managing the polio endgame. Limited efforts to date p In the late 1980s, wild poliovirus paralyzed more than 1,000 children each day, according to the Global Polio Eradication Initiative. Since then, thanks to widespread vaccination campaigns, cases. Failure to eradicate polio from these last remaining strongholds could result in as many as 200, 000 new cases every year, within 10 years, all over the world. Both share the same birth date. Few people are left who remember the earliest days of the polio struggle, but one—John Sever, MD, PhD—knew both Salk and Sabin, and in 1979, proposed that Rotary take up the eradication task.

Audio Interview. Interview with Dr. Walter Orenstein on the final steps in the global effort to eradicate polio. (08:37) Download Global polio-eradication efforts have led to a dramatic decrease. Concerns about the high perceived costs of eradicating the relatively low number of polio cases worldwide have led to recent suggestions that it is time to shift from a goal of eradication to control: abandoning eradication and allowing wild poliovirus to continue to circulate, which proponents of control believe can sustain the low number of cases The global eradication of polio is entering its final stages. The last case of poliomyelitis associated with serotype 2 wild poliovirus was reported in 1999 and of serotype 3 in 2012. In Africa, the last reported case of serotype 1 wild poliovirus was in Somalia in August 2014 Since the Global Polio Eradication Initiative was launched in 1988, the number of polio cases worldwide has declined by more than 99.99%. Among the three wild poliovirus (WPV) serotypes, only type 1 (WPV1) has been detected since 2012. Global eradication of type 2 WPV was declared in 2015; type 3 WPV was declared eradicated in 2019 The cost of failing to eradicate polio is astronomical, and best-case scenarios if only a global control Footnote 3 is achieved (as opposed to an eradication Footnote 4 goal) could result in as many as 200,000 new polio cases every year within 10 years [9,10,11]. Hence, discontinuing efforts towards achieving polio eradication is not option

Oral polio vaccine (OPV) will likely be insufficient to completely eradicate polio due to its propensity to mutate into neurovirulent forms and its inability to produce adequate immunity in certain areas of the world. Inactivated polio vaccine (IPV), a killed vaccine which therefore cannot mutate, m Progress towards polio eradication can be seen in the below heatmap, documenting the decline of disease incidence since 1980. Source: Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) / Date updated: 7 October 2020. But the wild polio virus is only one side of the story Scopus (4) Google Scholar. In its 2019 report, the field mission of the Technical Advisory Group on Polio Eradication, stated that the Pakistan program is on a failing trajectory, putting the rest of the global program at risk. 4. Polio TAG. Technical Advisory Group on Polio Eradication in Pakistan Feedback from TAG Health benefits aside, disease eradication is an expensive business. Heymann says polio eradication has cost more than $21 billion (€18.4 billion) so far, and we're not done yet. There's no.

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He was subsequently appointed as the chairman of the Nigeria Expert Review Committee on Polio Eradication and Routine Immunization in 2004 to date, a high-stakes role where he was charged with. He was subsequently appointed as the chairman of the Nigeria Expert Review Committee on Polio Eradication and Routine Immunization in 2004 to date, a high-stakes role where he was charged with ensuring Nigeria defeats polio at all costs. Nigeria has fought a long and hard battle with the poliomyelitis virus

Launched in 1988, the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) stands out as one of the largest, internationally coordinated global public health major projects conducted to date, with. The polio vaccine was first developed in 1953 by Jonas Salk. By 1979, the United States had eradicated polio. This lesson looks at the history of the development and distribution of the polio.

Polio Elimination in the United State

  1. Pandemic forces polio eradication group to halt campaigns. By Leslie Roberts Apr. 1, 2020 , To date, the type 2 component of the vaccine has caused most of these outbreaks,.
  2. The eradication of type 2 poliovirus, the absence of detection of type 3 poliovirus worldwide since November 2012, and cornering type 1 poliovirus to only a few geographic areas of 3 countries has enabled implementation of the endgame of polio eradication which calls for a phased withdrawal of oral polio vaccine beginning with the type 2.
  3. The campaign, formally called the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, is a joint project of the WHO, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), UNICEF, and the service organization Rotary International. It began by hoping to eradicate polio by 2000, a goal that was later pushed back to 2005 and now has no firm date
  4. istered polio drops during National and Sub-national immunization rounds (in high risk areas) every year
  5. Polio eradication funding for 2021 is $950 million, which includes $110 million for responding to vaccine-derived outbreaks. But it does not include $360 million for supplying the novel vaccine for the next three years. Securing the money is a major challenge, says Zaffran

When the polio eradication endeavour was initiated, the virus was endemic to 125 countries worldwide, but today that number was curtailed down to two: Afghanistan and Pakistan. Thus far in 2015. The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI), the public-private partnership leading the effort to eradicate polio on the planet, called the development a ''historic achievement'' in global health Afghan Youth Connect leads an assembly on polio eradication. D uring a three-day period encompassing World Polio Day, 24 October, a group of students in Jalalabad, Afghanistan, conducted a polio awareness campaign that was able to reach many of their peers with the message about Rotary's work to eradicate polio

1988 – The Global Polio Eradication Initiative – An Historian

10 facts on polio eradication - World Health Organizatio

  1. Date. 6 hours 12 hours 1 day 3 days all. Rank. Last day 1 week 1 month all. declared polio-free, the eradication of the devastating viral disease in the near future is a real possibility. A.
  2. Asia Why polio continues to be a health risk in Pakistan. After Africa was declared polio-free last month, Afghanistan and Pakistan are now the only countries in the world where the disease is found
  3. The polio vaccination is offered as part of the NHS routine childhood vaccination programme. It's given by injection in 5 separate doses. These are normally given at: 8, 12 and 16 weeks of age - as part of the 6-in-1 vaccine. 3 years and 4 months of age - as part of the 4-in-1 (DTaP/IPV) pre-school booster
  4. However, in January 2003, a child was paralyzed by polio in Lebanon, the first case seen in that country in nearly 10 years. Genetic sequencing of the virus confirmed it to be an importation from India. Such risks will remain unless polio is eradicated everywhere. The worldwide eradication campaign is now in its final stages
  5. The polio endgame: securing a world free of all polioviruses. The global effort to eradicate poliomyelitis has reduced the incidence of cases caused by wild poliovirus by more than 99% since its launch in 1988, from 350 000 annual cases in 125 endemic countries to 20 cases in two countries in 2017. Polio today
  6. Nigeria is the only country in Africa that is yet to be certified as polio free. Surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) is the foundation of the polio eradication initiative since it provides information to alert both health managers and clinician that timely actions should be initiated to interrupt transmission of the polio virus. The strategy also provides evidence for the absence of.

History of polio - Wikipedi

  1. RI has raised approximately 10% of the eradication costs since 1985. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation has challenged RI to raise $50M per year for polio, with a match of $100M, totaling $150 million/year. After the last case of paralysis, 450,000,000 children annually, worldwide, under the age of 5 years, must be immunized for an additional.
  2. The first target date for ending polio was set in 1988 by the GPEI, a partnership of the World Health Organization, the health charity Rotary International and others, which had aimed to eradicate.
  3. You can stay up to date with case breakdowns on The Global Polio Eradication Initiative's website. Last medically reviewed on September 17, 2018
  4. ated in the United States, see A Polio-Free US Thanks to Vaccine Efforts. The Global Polio Eradication Initiative was launched in 1988, with CDC as a leading member. Substantial progress has been made in recent years, and only three countries remain.
  5. The plan outlines what is needed to eradicate all polio disease by 2018. In June the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation announced a new fundraising agreement with Rotary. If successful, the campaign, which matches donations two-to-one (up to $35 million per year), will help raise $525 million for polio eradication

To date, through intensive vaccination campaigns, the PEI has reduced the number of polio cases worldwide from an estimated 350,000 cases in 1988 to 784 cases at the end of 2003. Approximately 5 million cases of paralysis have been averted since the launch of the global polio eradication effort. Continuing Challenge The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI), which includes immunization and education campaigns, has decreased polio cases about 99 percent since 1988. Despite great progress, in 2000 (the World Health Organization's target year for complete elimination), polio cases were still reported within 23 nations In 1988, the World Health Organization (WHO) initiated a campaign to eradicate the polio virus from the world population (Bari 2006). Since 1988, the WHO has used polio vaccines to successfully interrupt transmission of the disease to new individuals in all but three countries: Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Nigeria (WHO 2012). This paper examines how The War on Terror, stated by President George. are linked to a handful of polio hot spots in Nigeria, Pakistan and India2. 1 World Heath Assembly - Global eradication Poliomyelitis by the year 2000, 'Resolution and Desicions 1' 2 World Health Organisation - Polio eradication, now more than ever, stop polio forever, 2004 one INTRODUCTIO

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Disease eradication takes years to achieve and requires a lot of financial investment: smallpox eradication had an estimated cost of $300 million over a 10-year period; polio eradication efforts to date amounted to $4.5 billion. 14 But, as the chart here illustrates, while the initial costs of disease eradication efforts are high, in the long. Given these challenges, eradication of polio is extremely tough. The original target date for eradication by 2000 has been extended again and again—to 2005, 2008, 2010, and so on until the. In 1988, the World Health Assembly resolved that by the year 2000 paralytic poliomyelitis would be wiped off the face of the Earth.The global eradication campaign is now moving into its final stages, with valiant efforts under way to maintain polio vaccination programs, implement surveillance systems, and eliminate the last remaining reservoirs of poliovirus Cases grew to 147 in 2019 and there are currently 60 cases year-to-date. In Afghanistan there were 29 cases in 2019 and there are 34 year-to-date. To learn more about polio plus and Rotary's. Dr. Jonas Salk announces polio vaccine. On March 26, 1953, American medical researcher Dr. Jonas Salk announces on a national radio show that he has successfully tested a vaccine against.

Polio Vaccine History: Timeline of Poliomyelitis Discovery

But the next year, the number rose to 96, in two countries. Last year there were 71 in five countries. To date in 2019, there have been 68, in 10 countries. the polio eradication campaign. Global eradication. In 1988 the WHO launched a global initiative to eradicate polio by the year 2000. At that time, less than half the world's children had received 3 doses of the oral polio vaccine, and more than 350 000 new cases of polio were estimated to have been reported in 125 countries. 3 By 2001 the number of polio-endemic countries was down to 10, and the annual number of new cases.

No Lockdowns: The Terrifying Polio Pandemic of 1949-52 - AIE

The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) has since made great progress: the number of polio cases has fallen by more than 99%, from an estimated 350,000 cases in 1988 to around 400 in 2013 The Global Polio Eradication Initiative instituted a global switch from trivalent oral polio vaccine, which protects against all three polio strains, to bivalent oral polio vaccine, which protects against type 1 and type 3. This is commonly referred to as the Switch. Between these dates, GPLN had detected 859 strains of the vaccine. Meanwhile, in Nigeria similar issues have led to a surge in polio cases, against the backdrop of a global decline. The number of polio cases worldwide has been reduced by more than 99 per cent since 1988, the year the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI), a multi-billion dollar programme involving 200 countries, was launched in Geneva Murad launches five-day polio-eradication campaign. KARACH: Sindh Chief Minister Syed Murad Ali Shah has said that December 16 is an unfortunate date in the history of Pakistan on which the nation. The polio eradication campaign is faltering. Can a new vaccine help it get back on track? By Leslie Roberts Nov. 10, 2020 , 4:10 PM. The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) is about to roll.

Polio Eradication Report: '2020 Has Been A Terrible Year

The original target date for eradicating polio was 2000, and in 1999 the world seemed to be closing in on that goal. But the target was missed, and after just 483 cases in 2001, polio roared back. The Polio Crusade. Film Description. In the summer of 1950 fear gripped the residents of Wytheville, Virginia. Movie theaters shut down, baseball games were cancelled and panicky parents kept.

Timeline History of Vaccine

immunization or polio eradication activities. More than one million Rotarians worldwide have contributed toward the success of the polio eradication effort to date. 3. A statement on the approximate dollar amount spent on the global polio eradication effort each year Donors last week pledged $2.6 billion to combat polio as part of an eradication initiative that began in 1988 and hoped to wipe out polio by 2000. Since then, numerous such deadlines have been missed

Partners in Eradicating polio timeline Rotary Internationa

The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) was launched in 1988 with the aim of completely clearing wild polio viruses by 2000. More than three decades later, the goal has not been achieved, although spectacular advances have been made, with wild polio virus reported in only 2 countries in 2019 Polio, short for poliomyelitis, is a highly contagious virus spread in feces; although only one case in 200 causes symptoms, the hardest-hit victims can be paralyzed or killed Polio vaccine has been available since 1955. The inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) was available first, given as a shot, in 1955. A more convenient form, called oral polio vaccine (OPV), was given as liquid drops via the mouth. It was developed in 1961. OPV was recommended for use in the United States for almost 40 years, from 1963 until 2000 Decades of innovation, collaboration and old-fashioned sweat and tears have yielded the fewest polio cases to date, with the world on the cusp of complete eradication of polio. Yet to date. The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) is about to roll out a brand-new vaccine—one that its leaders desperately hope will turn the flagging effort around. If it works as expected, the vaccine just might overcome one of the biggest obstacles to polio eradication: out-of-control outbreaks caused by mutant polio strains derived from the vaccine itself

Surveillance to Track Progress Toward Polio Eradication

The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) was established in 1988, after polio had been identified as being a candidate for this type of project. Humans are the virus' only reservoir and the disease could be prevented by an effective and affordable vaccine The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) was launched in 1988 with the aim of completely clearing wild polio viruses by 2000. More than three decades later, the goal has not been achieved, although spectacular advances have been made, with wild polio virus reported in only 2 countries in 2019. In spite of such progress, novel challenges have been added to the equation, most importantly. Polio eradication efforts have been ongoing in the country since 1996 but several backslides delayed progress. However, in June 2020, after years of monitoring the wild poliovirus and recording no. The sixty-fifth World Health AssemblyDECLARES the completion of poliovirus eradication a programmatic emergency for global public health, requiring the full implementation of current and new eradication strategies, the institution of strong national oversight and accountability mechanisms for all areas affected by poliovirus, and the application of appropriate vaccination recommendations.

WHO Polio Eradication Initiative Pakistan Jobs 2014

To Develop, Implement and Evaluate the Polio Demonstration Project Comprising of a Community Based Intervention Package for Polio Eradication in Pakistan: Actual Study Start Date : July 2013: Actual Primary Completion Date : July 2017: Estimated Study Completion Date : December 202 Re: Polio eradication: a complex end game. Contamination of monkey kidney tissue cultures (used in the production of polio vaccines) by live amoebas. In 1996, while watching a TV news report on the death of two 5-year olds in Australia from brain-eating amoebae, I remembered a note in Hull et al.'s paper (1958 Creating safer polio vaccine strains for the post-eradication era. Date: January 4, 2016. Source: PLOS. Summary: While the goal of polio virus eradication is in sight, there are concerns about. Polio, The Odyssey of Eradication, addresses the huge question of why polio eradication has become such a singular focus of the global health community and received so much attention and funding in the past three decades. It is a brilliant book written in a compelling and accessible style and will be of interest to anyone keen to learn more. The national polio eradication effort has made major strides in reaching children with immunization in all parts of the country over the past 15 years. Now the tremendous progress towards the eradication of polio in Pakistan is. Polio Eradication Mohsin Khan 15 Years Book Format Pakistan Effort Cases Country 15 Anos

Polio End Game Strategy _ IndiaDisease Eradication | History of Vaccines

The Polio Eradication & Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018 (the Endgame Strategy) set the goal of a polio-free world by 2018. Achieving this goal requires a number of steps, including cessation of the use of OPV In the year between he has done so much, not least speaking to 300,000 Australians all over the country, meeting world leaders and philanthropists like Bill Gates and advocating for an increase in polio eradication funding. I was fortunate enough to spend much of the previous year with Akram, both the ups and downs (and there were quite a few. The Final Push to Eradicate Polio. 10/26/2012 10:51 am ET Updated Dec 26, 2012. Afghan women wait with their children to receive a polio vaccination on the second day of a vaccination campaign in Herat on October 15, 2012. A new three-day nationwide immunisation campaign against polio began all over the country Publication date: October 2018. Whilst Polio eradication programmes in these countries have been promoting awareness of the disease and its prevention through vaccination, a number of barriers. Einfachen Datensatz des Eintrags anzeigen. 12th Meeting of the South-East Asia Regional Certification Commission for Polio Eradication (‎SEA-RCCPE) 11th Meeting of the South-East Asia Regional Certification Commission for Polio Eradication (‎SEA-RCCPE)‎ en_US: dc.type: Meeting reports: en_US: dc.rights.holder: World Health Organization: en_US